Friday, September 4, 2020

Martin Luther King and Malcolm X free essay sample

Social Justice and Civil Equality In the quest for social equity and social liberties, Martin Luther King Jr. , Malcolm X, and Stokely Carmichael, tried to correct an imperfect framework. To achieve this undertaking, these men entered the arsenal and decided to employ peacefulness as their weapon. Their objective: to battle viciousness with peacefulness, to battle loathe with affection, and to spread balance through harmony. At long last they succeeded. Savagery breeds viciousness, detest breeds loathe, it is an inadequate methodology and an age-old intend to settling social orders issues. Malcolm X and Carmichael were both extraordinary people however that doesn't make them rough. They assaulted social equity and social equality energetically and decisively, not brutally. The strategies utilized and contentions made by Martin Luther King Jr. in Letter from Birmingham Jail, Malcolm X in The Ballot or the Bullet, and Stokely Carmichael in Black Power, show the intensity of peacefulness. These men address three separate issues in every one of their works. Ruler talks about social issues with respect to the country all in all in his letter. Malcolm X addresses the political uniformity of dark people in African American people group. Carmichael talks about racial oppression and its persecution of African American residents in their own locale. Battling with harmony, fighting with peacefulness, is the best measure while seeking after social equity and social liberties. I will show how Martin Luther King Jr. , Malcolm X, and Stokely Carmichael utilized detached techniques and peaceful methods in vanquishing the issues they had close by. Martin Luther King Jr. was a backer of peacefulness, a defender of harmony, and sought after social judges in the social equality period straightforwardly and peacefully. In his Letter from Birmingham Jail and through his endless walks and discourses, he had the option to show how peacefulness can be utilized to battle the social shameful acts occurring all through the country. Martin Luther King Jr. composed the Letter from Birmingham Jail on April sixteenth, 1963. This correspondence exhibits Kings adherence to peacefulness and his confidence in its capacity to beat isolation. Ruler contends that inactively â€Å"waiting† and devoted â€Å"patience† can never again be acknowledged in the fast quest for social equity and social equality. Ruler calls for direct peaceful activity by the African American people group. He uses his whereabouts, his composing style, and his purpose behind composing the letter to give his devotees instances of peacefulness. Lord was a splendid individual and I accept the title of this letter was picked which is as it should be. Naming this Letter from Birmingham Jail, King removes any proactive meanings or forceful messages that could be gotten from a title. Peaceful direct activity is Kings point. There is no call for cruel activity in the wake of being captured, no call for brutal fights in his name. He is presently simply one more man sitting in prison composing a letter to the majority. Ruler titles his letter from a spot, not to an individual or to network of individuals. His crowd is without a doubt the African American people group and by advising them he is composing â€Å"from jail† he insists his need and need for peaceful direct activity by exhibiting he won't â€Å"stand inertly by† and â€Å"wait patiently† for things to change. He is in prison for his direct peaceful activity and he is attempting to engrain this way of thinking into the psyches of the dark network with this title. The setting of a demonstration or occasion can be nearly as significant as the episode itself. Ruler comprehended this idea and utilized it for his potential benefit. Letter from Birmingham Jail supported King and his peaceful way to deal with social treacheries and social equality. Lord uses his style of composing as a viable technique for supporting peacefulness. He composes and talks in an intensely latent voice that is helpful in assaulting isolation legitimately and peacefully. Lord states, â€Å"I trust, sirs, you can comprehend our genuine and unavoidable fretfulness. † The expression â€Å"our genuine and unavoidable impatience† can be interpreted to show King’s aloof forceful, yet direct way when managing peacefulness. By expressing the African American people group â€Å"impatience† as genuine and unavoidable King constrains those perusing to turn out to be quickly and legitimately worried about issues of social equity and social equality. Ruler at that point states, â€Å"My companions, I should state to you that we have not made a solitary increase in social equality without decided lawful and peaceful weight. † Again there is a forcefulness with which the words are perused. The expression â€Å"determined legitimate and peaceful pressure,† sticks out. Syntactically, â€Å"determined,† â€Å"legal,† and â€Å"nonviolent† are descriptive words that apply to â€Å"pressure†. Every one of the three of those words are interchangeable with peacefulness. I think King needed â€Å"determined† to offer plan to his supporters. He needs them to be â€Å"determined† in their peaceful push for balance. â€Å"Legal† and â€Å"nonviolent† go connected at the hip here. Any vicious activity is without a doubt illicit. By coupling savagery with lawlessness, King can press upon his devotees that, to stay inside the laws of the United States, their mission for common fairness must be a peaceful one. Ruler utilizes these words to show how peacefulness is the â€Å"legal† or right strategy, not viciousness, to utilize when moving toward social equality. â€Å"Pressure† isn’t power, forcing somebody doesn't guarantee the deed will be finished. Weight considers different alternatives however pushes the one being â€Å"pressured† into a corner. That is King needs. He needs to corner white America, cover them with peaceful direct activity so the African American people group may conquer the social shameful acts of the time. Ruler utilizes his style of writing in a way that passes on a quiet, peaceful disposition while staying mighty and direct with social issues within reach. Each letter has its point, its principle thought, its main purpose behind setting aside the effort to put down considerations into sentences, and afterward setting aside more effort to mail those contemplations some place. Ruler composes this letter as a reaction to â€Å"several white church who had called King’s activities ‘untimely’. † Kings type of â€Å"utimely† activity lies in peaceful fights. In this circumstance the priests beg that the African American people group â€Å"wait† and be â€Å"patient. † King can no longer acknowledge this; he can never again be sidelined by the court framework that has granulated to stop concerning social liberties. He should make direct move. He states that the issue here should fall with the â€Å"horrific authentic and contemporary setting that induced them† as opposed to the peaceful exhibits that occurred. I accept this strategy for thought shows his peaceful attitude. He needs to prevail upon these ministers, he needs to agree with them, shake hands and concur that this isolation must end. Ruler states, â€Å"It is lamentable that shows are occurring in Birmingham, however it is significantly increasingly deplorable that the city’s white force structure left the Negro people group with no other option. † Two expressions stick out, â€Å"demonstrations† and â€Å"no elective. † King could have considered his show a dissent, yet to regularly is the term fight related with savagery. Ruler needed his immediate activity to show a serene, peaceful manner. He likewise expresses that the city of Birmingham left him â€Å"no elective. † I accept no choice to show Kings dissatisfaction with the white framework set up in Birmingham. It additionally permits him to advocate his â€Å"direct action† technique for moving toward peacefulness. By not having some other methods for showing their hatred for the social framework, King had the option to act legitimately and peacefully as this exhibit. It is this bombing social force structure that King plans to fix and correct peacefully. All through the Letter from Birmingham Jail, King had the option to build up his peaceful message utilizing his present area, his composing style, and the point that he was expounding on. Ruler assaulted isolation in this letter with intensely detached tones and depictive wording which so anyone might hear him to adequately advocate peacefulness. His proactive, peaceful interpretation of isolation disposed of the â€Å"wait patiently† thought that had been ingrained in the African American people group. Ruler had the option to utilize compelling contentions and strategies to address the social â€Å"injustices† occurring in the United States in peaceful way. Malcolm X conveyed his Ballot or the Bullet discourse in 1964 at a Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio. Despite the fact that there are fierce implications all through this work, I accept there is a progressively major peaceful message that Malcolm X was attempting to pass on. He accepts that the social equality development should be â€Å"common struggle† for each African American. Utilizing his title, composing style and subject of conversation I will show how even Malcolm X, America’s reprobate during the Civil Rights period, was a promoter of peacefulness in the quest for social equity and social liberties. The Ballot or the Bullet is a provocative; some may state brutal title, that takes into consideration no ill defined situation. I, be that as it may, accept this to show Malcolm X’s need to keep moving toward the social equality circumstance nearby. On many occasions in this location he calls to his kindred African Americans to illuminate themselves to the â€Å"ballot† or political climate of their locale. Instead of brutality, Malcolm X accepts â€Å"that the individual of color should control the legislative issues and the legislators in his own community†. He needs his individual dark residents to better th

Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Platos Contributions Essay Example for Free

Platos Contributions Essay It is accepted that Plato, an understudy of Socrates, was perhaps the best patron of theory. Verification of Platos reputation in the realm of reasoning can be unmistakably observed with his discoursed and his famous understudy Aristotle. Plato’s works are as discoursed, with Socrates as the essential speaker. With his hypothesis of Forms, he had talked about a wide scope of powerful and moral inquiries while finding inalienable associations between the two. Plato additionally thought to be epistemological inquiries, for example, regardless of whether information is legitimized genuine conviction. His most noteworthy work, The Republic, created hypotheses of equity. Verification of a genuinely incredible thinker can be appeared by their understudies. As referenced previously, Platos Academy was a raiser of scholars. One of the most conspicuous scholars to originate from the Academy was Aristotle. Plato himself encouraged Aristotle and showed him the methods of comprehension and thinking about his general surroundings. Plato partitioned his reality into two perspectives. These universes have structures, the comprehensible world and the perceptual world. Plato considered the to be world around us as blemished duplicates of the clear structures or thoughts. In the clear world, structures are unchangeable and great and just intelligible by the utilization of astuteness and comprehension. For instance, a seat is a seat since it â€Å"participates in† the Form of Chair. The structures are perfect â€Å"patterns,† perpetual, ageless, and great. Plato talks about them as self-declaration: the Form of Beauty is totally lovely. This drove, to the Third Man Argument that there must be an interminable number of Forms. â€Å"If it’s incomprehensible for not at all like things to resemble and like things dissimilar to, isn’t it then unimaginable for them to be many? Since, on the off chance that they were many, they would have contradictory properties† (Plato â€Å"Parmenides† 126), this is Mary Louise Gill and Paul Ryan’s interpretation of Plato’s Forms of Likeness and Unlikeness. Along these lines indeed the very same thing can be both like and not at all like, or one and many, by taking an interest in the Forms of Likeness and Unlikeness, of Unity and Plurality. Plato likewise accepted that information is intrinsic, or innate, and that the advancement of thoughts is covered somewhere down in the spirit, and might be guided out by educators. Plato drew a sharp differentiation between information, which is sure, and simple assessment. Assessments get from the moving universe of sensation information gets from the universe of ageless Forms, or characters. Theaetetus expressed, â€Å"It appears to me that a man who realizes something sees what he knows, and the manner in which it shows up at present, at any rate, is that information is essentially perception† (Cooper 168), in which Socrates concurred with that announcement. In his most popular discourse, The Republic, comprised of a protracted exchange on the idea of equity. Socrates recognizes the four significant excellencies in the various parts of this republic: the watchmen have insight, the assistants have boldness, and the entire has equity and control. Plato accepted that equity is the most significant uprightness. Socrates stated, â€Å"Justice is disapproving of one’s own business and not being a busybody† (Plato â€Å"The Republic† 111). Consequently, the equity of a perfect republic doesn't live in a specific piece of the republic yet rather in the structure of the republic in general. While Plato is most popular for his work The Republic, his bigger commitment to theory incorporates numerous such exchanges that are of old idea and discussion. Platos information and hypotheses have made due all through the ages are as yet significant in todays society. He kept on educating until the end, winning the esteem and love of his understudies and individual Athenians. His commitments to theory will be endless.? Works Cited Cooper, John M. , ed. Plato Complete Works. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997. Print. Plato. Parmenides. Trans. Mary Louise Gill and Paul Ryan. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 428-347 B. C. Print. . The Republic. Trans. Allan Bloom. : The Perseus Book Group, 1968. Print.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Educational System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Educational System - Essay Example The representatives thus, are left to for all intents and purposes battle for themselves. General Rule: The State and its offices, divisions and political developments are not subject for the convoluted lead of their representatives, (Evans p.3). The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act is portrayed as, a United States government law that administers how states and open organizations give early intercession, specialized curriculum, and related administrations to kids with inabilities. It tends to the instructive needs of kids with handicaps from birth to the time of 21.[1] , Adding that, The IDEA is viewed as a social liberties law. In any case, states are not required to partake. As a motivating force and to help states in following its prerequisites, IDEA makes subsidizes accessible to states that receive at any rate the base approaches and systems indicated in the IDEA in regards to the training of youngsters with inabilities. Since its beginning, all states have decided to take an interest. The IDEA was once in the past known as the Education for All Handicapped Children Act yet has developed significantly since. Thought turned into a government standard by a demonstration of Congressional reception in 1975 however has been altered commonly since. The IDEA was most as of late changed in 2004, which was a noteworthy update, (Individuals p.1). Coming up next are brief instances of a portion of the case that has originated from this law; Schaffer v. Weast: On November 14, 2005, the Supreme Court held in Schaffer v. Weast, 126 S.Ct. 528, that moving gatherings in a situation challenge hold the weight of influence. While this is an agreement with the typical lawful reasoning, the moving party is quite often the guardians of a kid. Arlington v. Murphy: On June 26, 2006 the Supreme Court held in Arlington v. Murphy, 126 S.Ct. 2455, that common guardians may not recuperate master observer charges as a major aspect of the expenses under 20 U.S.C. 1415(i)(3)(B). (People p.1). For example, with practically some other kid, disciplinary activity is a mind boggling matter for any school official when it relates to the understudies inside their educational system. For the order of an understudy that happens to have a handicap, In accordance with IDEA, control of a youngster with an incapacity must consider that inability. For instance, if a kid with Asperger disorder is touchy to boisterous commotions, and if the youngster comes up short on a room loaded up with noisy clamors, any order of that kid for coming up short on the room must consider the affectability and whether proper lodging were set up. As indicated by the United States Department of Education, for kids with inabilities who have been suspended for 10 days aggregate for each school year, including fractional days, the neighborhood instruction office (LEA) must hold an appearance assurance hearing inside 10 school days of any choice to change the situation of a youngster with a

Childhood Memories

Cherished Memories Cherished Memories Any age our life is brimming with occasions. In any case, there are occasions which resemble brilliant flashes. These are flashes of our emotions. They immediately light up the life and fill it with new implications. With them the spirit of a man is developing and changing, however in some cases we figure out how to see exactly how our body develops. Henceforth, the most brilliant minutes occur in our adolescence, while being little we saw the entire world totally in an unexpected way. My soonest cherished recollections are about my mom the most valuable individual to me on the planet. I recall when we were strolling through a recreation center, eating frozen yogurt and confections. Grins, stories, amiableness, heaps of toys and desserts this is the thing that my youth intends to me. I recall how we sat tight for family New Year's and birthday celebrations. A person is accompanied with occasions, with its excellence and gravity, from youth. They make life increasingly vivid, differing and cheerful. Obviously, I connected my adolescence with blessings. Some of them I am as yet keeping, since they are of high repute to me as a memory of life-changing fun and cheerful days. I recollect how we, being little youngsters, were sharp looking and glad to be in the top notch. We viewed ourselves as grown-ups in light of the fact that were understudies. I was accompanied by the entirety of my family and wished a decent excursion. I recollect the primary exercise and my instructor's words: Good evening, kids! From exercise to exercise, from class to class, we opened and aced the preeminent estimations of life at school each day. Presently, seeing minimal first-graders, I recollect my own first days at school and contrast myself with them. I was similarly as anxious, befuddled and here and there tolerably inquisitive. Every one of us has various recollections about the youth years, however it carries us to our joyful and upbeat adolescence.

Friday, August 21, 2020

John Kellogg Essays - Christian Vegetarianism, Kellogg Company

John Kellogg Specialist, food reformer; conceived in Tyrone Township, Mich. (sibling of Will K. Kellogg). Naturally introduced to a Seventh Day Adventist family, he enrolled in a class to study a hygieotherapeutic school. He dismissed this methodology and took normal clinical preparing, completing at Bellevue Hospital Medical College (New York City) however with a theory asserting that malady is simply the body's method of guarding. He had become manager of the Adventist month to month, Health Reformer (which he renamed Good Health in 1879), and on coming back to Battle Creek, he became director of the Western Health Reform Institute, which Sister Ellen Harmon White had just settled to advance thoughts regarding wellbeing much like Kellogg's. He renamed it the Battle Creek Sanitarium and started to apply his speculations about biologic living, or the Battle Creek thought, which focused on the job of common medication, for example, a veggie lover diet and a Spartan spa-like routine. He was likewis e much sought after as a specialist and would give his expenses to the asylum for poverty stricken patients. During the 1890s he set up a research center to grow increasingly nutritious nourishments; his sibling, Will, had gone along with him and they built up a dry wheat piece that before long turned out to be so well known as a morning meal grain that they started to sell it through a mail-request business; later they built up a rice chip and a corn drop and set up the Sanitas Food Company to create and sell these new items. As the food business kept on extending, the siblings became lawful enemies and by 1906 Will picked up the selective rights to sell the items under the name of W. K. Kellogg; John set up the Battle Creek Food Company and created other wellbeing nourishments, for example, espresso substitutes and soybean-determined milk. In the mean time, John had dropped out with the Adventist heads who felt he and his Battle Creek endeavor had gotten too huge and had floated e xcessively far from the congregation; in 1907 the Adventists banned him yet he battled to hold control of the asylum and his food research center. He composed more than 50 books advancing his thoughts and furthermore established the Race Betterment Foundation to seek after his hypotheses about selective breeding. Despite the fact that he could never become as rich or notable as his sibling, Will, John Kellogg had really founded a significant transformation in the human eating routine.

Saturday, August 8, 2020

French Ban on Face Covering

French Ban on Face Covering French Ban on Face Covering Home›Controversial Posts›French Ban on Face Covering Controversial PostsIntroductionThe controversies surrounding the facial covering by the Muslim women in France can be said to have reached its peak in 1989 when the students in Gabriel Havez School, were banned from fully covering their faces in school. The passing of the full face coverage into law and its enactment in April 2011 drew protest among the Muslim women faithful. Among the issue that the supporters of theirs law front as the justification of the ban is that full facial covering hinders individual recognition to the rest of the society. While those opposed to the law argue that the full facial covering g is an Islamic religious requirement for all Muslim women.Yet among the Muslim faithful the issue of full facial covering is just as controversial with the strict Islamic states such as Iran punishing those women who fail to full cover their faces in public (Miller, Vandome, McBrewster, 2009). It is against such backdrop that the France government passed this law and there is no doubt that besides the protest that saw several women arrested and charged with illegal protests the law will continue to be surrounded by controversies.Provide the context (political, cultural, etc) for the law that was passed.The roots of full facial and body covering among the Muslim society can trace its roots from the Quran. According to the Quran when addressing the wives of Mohammed the Islamic prophet, there was supposed to be a barrier between the wives and the Muslim men faithful. Since the Islamic religion is mainly based on the teachings of Prophet Mohammed the faithful of the Islamic religion follows this practices by having their womenfolk cover their bodies except for their hands and eyes (Miller, Vandome, McBrewster, 2009). However like all religions Islamic texts from the Quran as the texts from other the holy books are interpreted differently by different individuals. The re are those among the Muslim faithful who interprets this requirement of having a barrier between men and the wives of Mohammed as meant to imply decency rather that full facial covering for the women.But among most of the Islamic states full women covering is not only a cultural practice but also a legal requirement.   Although the use of Hijabs for full facial and body cover as popularly known among the Muslim society can be traced in the Quran not every Muslim believes that they are a religious requirement or symbols (Books, 2010). But most individuals who practice Islamic religion as well as other members of the society indentify the Hijabs with the Islamic religion. Therefore regardless of whether full facial covering is sanctioned in the Quran or not full facial covering can be easily indentified with Islamic religion and Islamic culture anywhere in the world. When passing the law among the issues that garner its support is the issue of social seclusion, difficulty in making identification among other issue. It should also be noted that there are Muslim women who are forced to wear the Hijabs by their male Muslim counterparts while other wear Hijabs out of their personal choices.Explain the limits of the applicability of this law.As the law on the women wearing the veil is put in place, there are some challenges that are negative to the applicability of the law fully in France. Basically the law provides an avenue to the supporters of the law to use it for selfish interest. The affected women have raised an issue with their husband’s intentions over the introduction of the law (Davis, 2011).   In their complaints, the women alleged that their husbands wanted to use the law to harass and force them to comply with the law by making them to stop wearing the veil. The law therefore could not protect the women from such allegations which could them their fundamental rights.The issue also as been a challenge as the Muslims leaders challenged them to be comp liant with the law therefore making it had for the women to be compliant with both the religion and the new law. Basically the law doesn’t allow such kind discrimination of ones human rights. Perhaps the women also complained about the death threads they were issued by the proactive supporters of the law forcing them to comply with the new law or be faced with assassination (Davis, 2011). Such kind of harassment could be a negative impact of the new law therefore forcing the government to rethink over the issue and also avoid risking the lives of the innocent Muslim women. Since then the government as been forced to intervene the public of the new law by explaining it further that it wasn’t meant to force the women to do away with the veil but rather be able to identify themselves. The police also argue that the ban however cannot the use of force to compel the women to comply (Davis, 2011).Analyze the reasons that are being put forward by the French state to justify this law. A re they sound? Are they the real ones? Is there a political agenda behind this law? Etc..The key argument tat has been put forward in justification of this law by the French government is that face coverings have been a major hindrance in identifying people which is a major security risk. Face coverings have also been viewed as social hindrances within a society that primarily depends on facial recognition as well as communication through various facial expressions (Pelissier, 2011). On the other hand the key argument that has been put forward against the ban is that it violates individual rights and freedom of the Muslims especially women. This has been viewed as a form of stigmatization on gender basis as most Muslim women have claimed.To some extent the ban seem quite reasonable since it comes as very relevant if argued behind the background of curbing terrorism and crime. With the niqab both women and also men can so easily hide their identities and propagate criminal and terror ist activities without even capturing their faces either by camera or though eye witnesses. This would act as a very big hindrance in investigating criminal and terrorist activities as collection of evidence would be so difficult. The law can therefore not in any way be interpreted as a political agenda as this is a measure that has been taken to protect both French and non French citizens including the Muslim in the fight against crime and terrorism.   On the other hand the ban can be seen as violating the rights and freedom of Muslims in exercising their religious beliefs.Compare and contrast the ‘feminist’ argument, the ‘religious’ argument, the ‘citizenship’ argument and the ‘cultural’ argumentThe feminists argue that the grant law was meant to harass them for no good reason. They complained that the government was exposing them to risk of assassination because of their belief as Muslim women. Therefore they requested the government to reconsider their rights as women.   About the religion, they argued that the Muslim religion allows them to be in the dressing of veil. Basically it could be difficult for the women to comply with the new law as well as being faithful to the Muslim religion (Davis, 2011). They also argue that the values in the Muslim religion could not be realized if the new law was affected and allow the exploitation of their rights. The Muslim activist argues that the process is meant to undermine the minority group in order to win compromise support from the majority.The law could rather discriminate the Muslim women like the foreigners than just being the citizens of France. The issue raised several questions about the government protection of its minority citizens from being the subject to the harassment that the Muslim women face (Davis, 2011). As a matter of fact, there is a conflict of interest in the argument about the dressing. Though the government seems to protect the citizens from the insecurity caused by the use of the dressing, the women suffer the derailment of their culture by the influence of the French dominant culture. Basically there is an argument that the reason for the disapproval of the dressing is the fear that the Muslim culture would penetrate further therefore fading away the culture of the majority (Davis, 2011).As an anthropologist, what would you answer a journalist who is asking you your opinion on this law. Provide some reasoning and arguments.As an anthropologist I would look at the law from a positive point of view rather than the way most Muslims are looking at it as a political agenda and a form of victimization. I totally agree that the law has the right to go to any lengths to ensure the security of a state and that of both its citizens and non citizens as well. In this respect, the number of Muslim women in France wearing the niqab in the recent past has been increasingly alarming. In this respect a group of men dressed in burqa or niqab can commit a crime and go unnoticed as feigning as women makes them unlikely suspicious. In addition to this the burqa is derived from a fundamentalist tradition in that Islam as a religion severely limits the rights of women through forcing them to wear such kind of attire (International Debate Education Association, 2011). This parallels with its forbidding women from exposing their skin so as not to seduce women.To begin with there is nowhere in the Quran that is indicated that it is mandatory for them to wear the niqab. This hence is supposed to be a personal choice. While some Muslim women do wear them by choice other are forced to wear them against their will. The ban by this law will therefore protect the latter group who form the majority. On the other hand, Muslims women by personal choice have the right to wear the burqa or niqab as way of expressing their religious beliefs (Pelissier, 2011). The law therefore could be violating their freedoms. This is a matter that the state and the Muslim freedo m advocates are therefore supposed to settle and come into a consensus about. Banning the niqab or burqa could lead amount into a major issue since the Muslim community is justified to claim that this is a violation of their religious freedomsConclusionAmong the principles many that the France and many other governments around the world adhere to is that of separation between the state and religion. France like m any other countries also recognizes the right for its citizens to believe, worship, and practices religion or not to .The principle of fairness and equal application of the law is also among the principles that are strictly adhered to. It should be noted that in such public places such as airports terminals and banks counters among other places individuals are required to uncover their faces as a means of identification verification. Then regardless of the debates that surrounds then we should note that full facial covering hinders personal identification. Bearing this in m ind then we can understand that it is possible for individuals with criminal intent to use religious symbols such as the Hijabs as a cover for their criminal intentions.

Tuesday, June 23, 2020

Interaction as Transaction in Jonathan Franzen’s The Corrections - Literature Essay Samples

The Lambert family, the protagonists of Jonathan Franzen’s The Corrections, view the world through a lens which attaches monetary value to people, objects, and actions. Money is a constant presence in their lives, whether there’s plenty or not enough. Alfred, Enid, Gary, Denise, Chip, and other characters, seem only to exist in relation to someone or something outside themselves. They seem to evaluate their own worth according to that someone or something. The traditional ideal of family interaction becomes a series of transactions, as the Lamberts coldly communicate through a wall of imagined currency; constructed to protect their emotional vulnerability. Each member of the Lambert family is valued for their occupation in the corporation of the family. Enid chooses her husband, Alfred, because he is an â€Å"earner† and â€Å"she intend[s] to be comfortable in life as well as happy† (265). When she first meets Alfred, Enid studies the outer packaging of Alfred, whom she views as a product. She concludes Alfred’s â€Å"†¦suits were themselves luxuriantly pleated wool beauties.† (265). Enid bases her value of him on her evaluation of his packaging. In the end, when Alfred is put in a nursing home, Enid admits to always just wanting his body. He is her investment and she notices that â€Å"her life†¦bore a strange resemblance to the lives of those friends of hers, Chuck Meisner and Joe Person in particular, who were ‘addicted’ to monitoring their investments†¦but she was the same way with Alfred: painfully attuned to every hopeful upswing, forever fearful of a crash† (470). E nid’s hopes in life are materialistic and so she constantly watches her investment to measure her own success and worth. Throughout the novel Enid obsessively compares herself to people, especially friends, in terms of class or money. Like Enid, Gary, their eldest son, also identifies Alfred with his work. Gary sees Alfred, who works for a railroad company, as â€Å"†¦forever on the verge of derailing as he lurched down hallways†¦the old iron horse was careening toward a crash, and Gary could hardly stand to look† (171). As Alfred’s health declines and he can no longer work, Gary’s value of him declines and he ponders whether Alfred’s life is still meaningful when he asks: â€Å"This train should not be running on these tracks?† (171). Denise points out to her brother, Gary, his unrealistic view of their father: â€Å"It’s just as much a fantasy to act like Dad’s some worn-out old machine. He’s a person, Gary. He has an interior life† (211). Denise’s view of her father is more human. Gary responds to her with: â€Å"If he wants to sit in that chair and sleep his life away, that’s just fine†¦But first let’s yank that chair out of a three-floor house that’s falling apart and losing value† (211). His concern is completely financial. Gary’s father is â€Å"falling apart and losing value† and instead of processing this, and emotionally dealing with it, Gary focuses on the waning worth of the house to create and emotional distance. Franzen continually incorporates psychology and economy throughout the novel, suggesting an enmeshment, shown through the Lamberts to be unhealthy and detached. Enid’s anxieties over Alfred’s worth are revealed when she equates Alfred to â€Å"†¦a wad of money stashed in a mattress†¦moldering and devaluing† (276). As Alfred gets older, his health deteriorates and he loses his ability to work and be the â€Å"earner† Enid had invested in. Enid’s â€Å"Alfred stock† plummets when he refuses to buy a certain stock they both know will make then money. Because Alfred is a â€Å"wad of money†¦in a mattress,† Enid must wage a battle on the marital mattress in an effort to persuade her husband. The mattress is a property of shared privacy. Typically, Enid is on one side, sobbing herself to sleep, and Alfred is on the other, seeking refuge in dreams. Enid observes that â€Å"†¦a depression in the heartland ha[s] shriveled h im [Alfred]† (276). The Depression era shapes Alfred’s outlook on finances and leaves him â€Å"shriveled,† or financially impotent and unable to take risks. Alfred also suffers from chronic depression and this leaves him almost incapacitated and emotionally impotent. Enid must deal with the effects of both kinds of depression on her marriagethe â€Å"heartland† (270). She decides Alfred is a â€Å"†¦bad investor. But she [is] not,† and in bed with him, â€Å"she’d been known†¦when a room was very dark†¦to take a real risk or two† (276). Enid sees contact with her husband on their bed as a financial risk. While she attempts to manipulate her husband with oral sex, she asks suggestively: â€Å"We could have a little extra money in the bank, you think? Take the boys to Disneyland. You think?† (276). After a few seconds, Enid’s gamble disappoints, and Alfred uncomfortable with Enid’s familiarity and ass ertiveness with money, pushes her away. To feel dominance, Alfred then forces her to have intercourse with him. When it comes to money, Alfred falls short of Enid’s expectations, but her constant suggestions only serve to remind Alfred of his inability to financially perform. Enid’s value among the family is her labor inside the home. Her â€Å"alchemical lab beneath the kitchen contained a Maytag with a wringer that swung over it, twinned rubber rollers like enormous black lips. Bleach, bluing, distilled water, starch. A bulky locomotive of an iron, its power cord in a patterned knit fabric† (265). This â€Å"lab† where Enid keeps her tools, is similar to Alfred’s lab in the basement. She is a worker like Alfred, only with a different job. Enid is the hardworking consumer, who distracts herself by collecting meaningless junk and working in her lab. Her occupational education develops â€Å"during and after the Depression† where Enid â€Å"learn[s] many survival skills† (265). She buys into a false reality of work and consumptionthe American Dream, to keep herself distracted from feelings that are possibly too traumatic or too difficult for her to manage. Franzen writes: â€Å"elective ignorance [is] a great surv ival skill, perhaps the greatest† (265). Enid preserves herself by viewing the world with â€Å"elective ignorance† and not accepting the reality behind the financial faà §ade she adds to it. Franzen compares Alfred and Enid’s son Gary’s marriage to a cash register in which â€Å"love and goodwill† are deposited and spent. When Enid insists on a family Christmas in her Midwestern hometown, St. Jude, Gary’s wife Caroline, is adamant about not going. Franzen writes: â€Å"the till of their marriage no longer contained sufficient funds of love and goodwill to cover the emotional costs that going to St. Jude entailed for Caroline or that not going to St. Jude entailed for him† (191). Christmas in St. Jude is an â€Å"emotional cost† rather than an opportunity to see family. Furthermore, Gary only agrees to go if his parents agree to consider selling their house so that Gary doesn’t have to worry over possibly taking care of them in the future. He is only willing to spend Christmas with his parents if they agree to the exchange. Although Gary and Caroline have serious marital problems and seem to be in constant competition for power, Gary cannot bring himself to divorce her because he is afraid of the financial consequences. He â€Å"†¦let himself imagine being divorced. But three glowing and idealized mental portraits of his children, shadowed by a batlike horde of fears regarding finance, chased the notion from his head† (202). Behind the glossy â€Å"portraits,† or packaging of his children, Gary hides an ugly anxiety about finances. Fear motivates Gary to protect himself from emotional pain by viewing his relationships as financial interactions. Like Enid, Gary views his children as products he creates and his marriage as a business venture he hopes will be lucrative. Franzen points out a certain logic that many people subscribe to in the text: money makes people inherently different. When Denise visits Austria, she meets with Enid’s wealthier friends from St. Jude Klaus and Sil via. Klaus talks about St. Jude’s â€Å"phony democracy† and it’s peoples belief that there are not â€Å"class differences,† â€Å"race differences,† or â€Å"economic differences† (390). All these differences boil down to economics and the achievement of the American Dream. The dream is supposed to be available to all people who work hard enough, yet it isn’t. The people of St. Jude pretend there is equality. Klaus claims he doesn’t remember meeting Enid some Thanksgivings back, because â€Å"everyone pretends to be the same† (390). Immediately afterwards Silvia exclaims, â€Å"Isn’t the champagne wonderful? Really different! Klaus and I used to drink it drier, but then we found this, and we love it† (391). Klaus adds, â€Å"there’s such snob appeal to dry† (392). The difference between peoplemoneyis prevalent in the way Klaus and Silvia view the world. They are sure to point out the â€Å" wonderful†¦really different† champagne they serve Denise. However Denise notices â€Å"Klaus t[ake] a bottle from a silver bucket and pour Sekt with a flourish† and observes â€Å"the Sekt [to be] sweet and over carbonated and remarkably much like Sprite† (390). To Klaus and Silvia, money makes things inherently superior, but in actuality the difference is meaningless or non-existent. Denise, the chef, cannot detect the â€Å"wonderful† difference of their champagne. Like Enid, Klaus and Silvia are doing exactly what the people of St. Jude do, but instead of pretending they’re the same, they pretend they are inherently different. They insist on the presence of their differences because it allows them to feel a false superiority in the world. But the universal human struggle transcends all social-economic borders making all people in some respects the same. Chip wakes up to this reality after his traumatic experiences in Lithuania. He goes with Gitanas, a criminal warlord who promises Chip money. Chip feels a brother-like connection to Gitanas (who looks like him) and Gitanas sees Chip as a â€Å"†¦valued employee, a vulnerable and delightful American, an object of amusement and indulgence and even mystery† (438). To Gitanas, Chip is an object, a product, a way to make money, a hard worker. Although Chip needs money the most, he, like Denise, tries to see the world without the capitalist lens the other Lamberts look through. Gitanas’ struggle to reconcile his capitalistic beliefs with those of his country, parallels Chips struggle within himself to reconcile his inherited beliefs with his theoretical beliefs. â€Å"‘How Lithuanian we all felt,† Gitanas says, â€Å"when we could point to the Soviets and say: No were not like that†¦ No we are not free-market, no, we are not globalizedthis doesnâ€℠¢t make me feel Lithuanian. This makes me feel stupid and Stone Age. So how do I be a patriot now?†¦What is the positive definition of my country?† (444). With Gitanas and Lithuania, Franzen shows a drive in other parts of the world to emulate and resist concepts like the American Dream. Chip frequents spas in Lithuania looking for sexual release and â€Å"with each prepaid ejaculation he rid himself of another ounce of the hereditary shame that had resisted fifteen years of sustained theoretical attack. What remained was a gratitude that he expressed in the form of one hundred percent tips† (438). Chips venture into the â€Å"theoretical† world of Marx and Foucault is an â€Å"attack† on his Midwestern, capitalist heritage. Chip is able to excrete his â€Å"shame† because he unabashedly pays for the release. Once the shame is gone, the theories he â€Å"resisted† for so long begin to take permanent hold as part of his world view. When C hip comes home for Christmas, â€Å"the Midwestern street,† his parent’s street, â€Å"struck the traveler [Chip] as a wonderland of wealth and oak trees and conspicuously useless space. The traveler didn’t see how such a place could exist in a world of Lithuanias and Polands† (536). Chip becomes an outsider, a â€Å"traveler† to the land where he grew up. The Midwestern ideology of financial competition is broken as he recognizes the real opulence and waste of middle class American life compared to war torn places like Lithuania and Poland. Chip acknowledges â€Å"it was a testament to the insulatory effectiveness of political boundaries that power didn’t simply arc across the gap between such divergent economic voltages. It seemed mirage-like. It seemed like an exceptionally vivid memory of something beloved and dead† (536). This memory is of the capitalist ideology he used to believe in, that Enid, Alfred and Gary still view as inh erent. Alfred considers letting himself drown, and escaping this ideology, when he falls off the cruise ship. He thinks about the â€Å"objectless world of death† and the â€Å"universe of unbeing† that lies waiting in the depths of the cold, dark water (426). The â€Å"orange flotation device† that is thrown to him he thinks, â€Å"would be a GOD in the objectless world of death†¦It was his last object and so instinctively, he loved it and pulled it closer† (426). The object reminds him of his own existence. If death is a place of nothingness, than life is a place filled with objects that he attaches meaning to. With this scene, Franzen points to the way objects are used to define people in the text. People use the objects around them to define who they are; they relate themselves to the their objects. Alfred hopes: some day â€Å"†¦he [could] wake up transformed into a wholly different person with infinite energy and infinite time to attend to all th e objects that he’d saved, to keep it all working, to keep it all together† (462). The objects are Alfred and if he is capable of tending to the objects, and therefore himself, he can exist. Without caring for these objects, Alfred will cease to exist (462). He contemplates this and says â€Å"aloud† to himself in the basement, â€Å"I ought to pitch the whole damn lot of it,† (463). This allusion to suicide is present throughout the novel. Once pulled aboard the ship and out of the freezing water, Alfred â€Å"reconsider[s] the wisdom of surviving† because the crew â€Å"treat[s] him like a child† (463). He doesn’t want to live if he cannot keep his individual privacy and care for himself, the way his objects in the basement beg to be cared for. Alfred is the object in Enid’s life that she had uses to relate herself to, and once he is gone, her anger and judgment towards the world decreases. Because she feels less oppressed, En id is free to exist without the broken down, depressed, and emotionally unavailable object that is Alfred. It is only when she visits Alfred that she gets depressed. Despite this, Enid does not fully shatter the capitalist lens. She continues to â€Å"bicker about money,† with Gary, â€Å"but [it is] only recreational† (562). She tortures him about his failed stock choices and he tortures her about the $4.62 she owes him for the six-inch bolts he bought for the shower. Gary is entrenched in his belief of the materialistic American Dream and spends his limited time at Christmas calling out a â€Å"summary† of the family situation, as if in a business meeting. He speaks like a financial analyst when addressing his father’s health, and like a debt collector when confronting his mother about the ridiculous debt she owes him. Gary kisses his mother goodbye, saying, â€Å"call Hedgpeth [Alfred’s doctor] tomorrow morning. Then call me and tell me what the plan is. I’m going to monitor this closely† (543). His detached attitude protects Gary from dealing with his father’s inevitable death, and there fore his own inevitable deterioration and death. Franzen writes: â€Å"Chip could see it clearly now, behind the cold front of Gary’s departure: his brother was afraid† (543). Because Chip has shattered the lens, he is able to see the reality of his brother’s â€Å"cold front.† Fear of feeling vulnerable, motivates the Lamberts, who are Franzen’s representation of America, to buy into a capitalist view of their world. Works Cited Franzen, Jonathan. The Corrections. New York: Picador.